Scientific Reports.

Explainable artificial intelligence approaches for COVID-19 prognosis prediction using clinical markers.

Krishnaraj Chadaga, Srikanth Prabhu, Niranjana Sampathila, Rajagopala Chadaga, Shashikiran Umakanth, Devadas Bhat, and Shashi Kumar G.S. Scientific Reports 14, Article number: 1783 (2024).


The COVID-19 influenza emerged and proved to be fatal, causing millions of deaths worldwide. Vaccines were eventually discovered, effectively preventing the severe symptoms caused by the disease. However, some of the population (elderly and patients with comorbidities) are still vulnerable to severe symptoms such as breathlessness and chest pain. Identifying these patients in advance is imperative to prevent a bad prognosis. Hence, machine learning and deep learning algorithms have been used for early COVID-19 severity prediction using clinical and laboratory markers. The COVID-19 data was collected from two Manipal hospitals after obtaining ethical clearance. Multiple nature-inspired feature selection algorithms are used to choose the most crucial markers. A maximum testing accuracy of 95% was achieved by the classifiers. The predictions obtained by the classifiers have been demystified using five explainable artificial intelligence techniques (XAI). According to XAI, the most important markers are c-reactive protein, basophils, lymphocytes, albumin, D-Dimer and neutrophils. The models could be deployed in various healthcare facilities to predict COVID-19 severity in advance so that appropriate treatments could be provided to mitigate a severe prognosis. The computer aided diagnostic method can also aid the healthcare professionals and ease the burden on already suffering healthcare infrastructure.


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